Partly this is down to physical differences: the experience of being smaller, of being pregnant or needing to breastfeed a baby, of feeling unsafe after dark.
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Feeling marginalised professionally can also sharpen awareness of what life is like for other excluded groups: children and young people, old people, or those with disabilities. The question is really not would cities be different if they were designed by women? I meet urban anthropologist Caroline Moser at her house in north London.
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Moser, who is 70, pioneered a gender-aware approach to planning at the Development Planning Unit at UCL, and spent much of her career doing fieldwork in Latin American slums. She is recovering from a broken foot, but has agreed to take me on a walk to show me what the gendered city looks like - and what we could expect to see more of, if planners and architects more routinely thought in these terms. Moser makes a distinction between practical gender needs, such as highchairs for infants or toilets, and strategic ones such as political representation, or women-only recreation facilities.
This leafy and luxurious corner of London may seem remote from what we mostly mean by urban development. Since then, others have taken up the argument that a woman-friendly city would be more porous, the divisions between home and work less rigid, so that domestic work is acknowledged as a productive activity, and carers of children, disabled relatives and older people are less excluded from economic life.
Architecture and the urban landscape in Singapore
In any case, such divisions are often artificial, with women in developing-world cities undertaking economic activity that has too often been ignored. Feminists are not and have never been the only people making the case for radically transformed urban environments.
But experts such as urban planner Yasminah Beebeejaun insist the gender politics of planning has long been underplayed. She argues, for example, that the garden city movement — which looks set to be revived in the UK with cross-party support — was conceived in part as a means of moving women out of city centres, still regarded in the early 20th century as morally dubious places, to leafy enclaves from where men would commute to work.
The single-family houses with private gardens we have all been taught to aspire to, she adds, require far more upkeep than flats and are more likely to result in a breadwinner-model family with a stay-at-home mum. She studies public transport, an area of heightened concern for policymakers in light of horrific crimes such as the gang rape and murder on a Delhi bus in of Jyoti Singh Pandey. There are places in which women — and children, old people, people who belong to ethnic or sexual minorities, and people with disabilities — are enabled to thrive and included in decision-making processes.
- Managing Urban Landscape towards the Sustainable City: A Case Study from Northern Greece.
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European aesthetics dominated, from the neoclassicism of City Hall, to the Palladian-inspired Empress Building. The ever-expanding list of ambitious contemporary projects certainly has the world watching.
Housed in a beautifully restored colonial building, the iconic Raffles Hotel provides a relaxing getaway in the heart of the city. The luxurious hotel boasts a choice of 14 dining options and a shopping arcade Take time out from your shopping to wander up frangipani-scented Emerald Hill Rd, graced with some of Singapore's finest terrace houses The grand, whitewashed, neoclassical home of Singapore's president, set in 16 hectares of grounds, was built by the British between and as Government House, and is open to visitors just five times a year Part of the ambitious Marina Bay Sands casino-retail complex, the Sands hotel is famed for its extraordinary rooftop infinity pool, which straddles the roofs of the three hotel skyscrapers Paradoxically in the middle of Chinatown, this is the oldest Hindu temple in Singapore, originally built in , then rebuilt in Singapore's hectare botanic wonderland is a Unesco World Heritage Site and one of the city's most arresting attractions One of the areas of human activity which exerts severe pressure on the environment is the management of urban landscape.
Many of the modern Greek cities have experienced intense urbanization and expanding, but without the appropriate means to support them. The continuous expansion of the built environment, the degradation of living conditions due to pollution etc. In this paper an attempt is made to explore the problems and opportunities that a city of Northern Greece, Komotini, presents, with rich natural, historical and multicultural backgrounds.
Through thorough planning and targeted development policies can be determined the appropriate actions in urban environment, in order to prevent and legalize some of the principles of the sustainable city. Request Permissions. Potsiou and C. Aravantinos: Urban planning for a sustainable development of urban space in Greek , University Studio Press, Athens Edgar, J.
Taylor, Housing, in: P. Roberts, H. Voulgaris, A.go here
The Modern Urban Landscape - Edward Relph - Google книги
Voulgarakis, G. Zaglis, X. Kolovos, G. Selinas, D. Kalivas: Depiction and comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of urban green in 11 Greek cities in Greek , Agricultural Univ.