By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus. Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study.
Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation 12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents.
Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase.
Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.
Karyological and cytological effects of gamma rays on pollen ontogenesis and viability and on the tapetum of Nicotiana tabacum L. Muhanna, S. Gamma irradiation of seeds to Gy or inflorescences Gy of Nicotiana tabacum L. In plants raised from irradiated seeds, the frequency of abnormal meiotic figures and the rate of pollen sterility were directly related to the gamma ray dose. Gamma irradiation also induced the early dysfunction of the tapetum tapetal degeneration was already visible at pachytene with nuclear pycnosis or an expanded and sticky chromatin network and this no doubt contributed to pollen sterility.
Secretory products of helminth parasites as immunomodulators. Parasitic helminths release molecules into their environment, which are generally referred to as excretory- secretory products or ES. ES derived from a wide range of nematodes, trematodes and cestodes have been studied during the past years, their characterization evolving from simple biochemical procedures such as SDS-PAGE in the early days to sophisticated proteomics in the 21st century.
Study has incorporated investigation of ES structure, potential as vaccines, immunodiagnostic utility, functional activities and immunomodulatory properties. Immunomodulation by ES is increasingly the area of most intensive research with a number of defined helminth products extensively analyzed with respect to the nature of their selective effects on cells of the immune system as well as the molecular mechanisms, which underlie these immunomodulatory effects. As a consequence, we are now beginning to learn the identities of the receptors that ES employ and are increasingly acquiring detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways that they interact with and subvert.
Such information is contributing to the growing idea that the anti-inflammatory properties of a number of ES products makes them suitable starting points for the development of novel drugs for treating human inflammatory disease. Mechanistically, we show that loss of BPIFB6 expression induces pronounced alterations in retrograde and anterograde trafficking, which correlate with dramatic fragmentation of the Golgi complex.
Taken together, these data implicate BPIFB6 as a key regulator of secretory pathway trafficking and viral replication and suggest that members of the BPIFB family participate in diverse host cell functions to regulate virus infections. Enterovirus infections are associated with a number of severe pathologies, such as aseptic meningitis, dilated cardiomyopathy, type I diabetes, paralysis, and even death. These viruses, which include coxsackievirus B CVB , poliovirus PV , and enterovirus 71 EV71 , co-opt the host cell secretory pathway, which controls the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to facilitate their replication.
We show that loss of. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites. Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments.
Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity.
In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.
Predicting Secretory Proteins with SignalP. SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage.
Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue-and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.
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In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Human protein secretory pathway genes are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern to match processing demands of the secretome. Protein secretory pathway in eukaryal cells is responsible for delivering functional secretory proteins.
The dysfunction of this pathway causes a range of important human diseases from congenital disorders to cancer. Despite the piled-up knowledge on the molecular biology and biochemistry level We also inspected the potential functional link between detected extreme genes and the corresponding tissues enriched secretome. As a result, the detected extreme genes showed correlation with the enrichment of the nature and number of specific post Our findings conciliate both the housekeeping and tissue-specific nature of the protein secretory pathway, which we attribute to a fine-tuned regulation of defined gene families to support the diversity of secreted proteins and their modifications Immune synapse IS formation by T lymphocytes constitutes a crucial event involved in antigen-specific, cellular and humoral immune responses.
After IS formation by T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, the convergence of secretory vesicles toward the microtubule-organizing center MTOC and MTOC polarization to the IS are involved in polarized secretion at the synaptic cleft. This specialized mechanism appears to specifically provide the immune system with a fine strategy to increase the efficiency of crucial secretory effector functions of T lymphocytes, while minimizing non-specific, cytokine-mediated stimulation of bystander cells, target cell killing and activation-induced cell death.
The molecular bases involved in the polarized secretory traffic toward the IS in T lymphocytes have been the focus of interest, thus different models and several imaging strategies have been developed to gain insights into the mechanisms governing directional secretory traffic. In this review, we deal with the most widely used, state-of-the-art approaches to address the molecular mechanisms underlying this crucial, immune secretory response.
RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta.
In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness. Comparison of ion transport by cultured secretory and absorptive canine airway epithelia. The use of primary cell culture techniques to predict the function of native respiratory epithelia was tested in studies of dog airway epithelia.
However, there have been no studies to date on the function of secretory N-ERC, despite the fact that it is abundantly secreted into the sera of mesothelioma patients. In this study, we investigated whether N-ERC could function as a secretory factor to stimulate tumor progression. The culture medium containing the secretory N-ERC also had the activity to increase the number of cells.
Secretory expression of the non- secretory -type Lentinula edodes laccase by Aspergillus oryzae. The shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, has an extracelluar secretory -type laccase, Lcc1, and a fruiting-body-accumulation-type laccase, Lcc4. We previously reported the production of Lcc1 by plant cells, but had difficulty producing Lcc4. Here, we report the production of Lcc1 and Lcc4 by Aspergillus oryzae and the extracellular secretory production of Lcc4 using a modified secretion signal peptide SP from Lcc1.
Sp-Lcc4 produced by A. K M values for the substrates 2,2'-azino-di- 3-ethylbenzthiazolinsulfonate , 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol, pyrogallol, and catechol were similar for Lcc4 and Sp-Lcc4. In conclusion, a non- secretory -type fungal laccase is secreted into the culture media with its original enzymatic properties by exploiting modified secretory signal peptide. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis by adult rat submandibular salivary-gland secretory units. The synthesis of glycosaminoglycans GAG by a preparation of purified, functional submandibular-gland secretory units acini and intercalated ducts was examined.
Such units were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats by digestion of minced gland with hyaluronidase and collagenase followed by gentle sieving of the digest through a graded series of Teflon screens. They incorporated amino acids into exocrine proteins which could be released by stimulation with isoproterenol as in vivo, indicating their functional integrity. Secretory units, incubated for 2 h in medium containing [35S]-sodium sulphate alone or in combination with [3H]-glucosamine, were then washed, homogenized and digested in pronase.
The resulting material was then sequentially digested by specific enzymic and chemical procedures and analysed by chromatography on Sephadex G columns to identify the various GAG synthesized. Secretory units synthesized a GAG mixture which was per cent hyaluronic acid, per cent heparan sulphate, and only per cent chondroitin or dermatan sulphates, similar to that synthesized in vivo.
No GAG was present in the secretory material, suggesting that all the GAG synthesized was destined for the basement membrane or cell surface. Secretory proteins of the pulmonary extracellular lining. The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining EL that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium.
Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit whole serum antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography.
Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium. Secretory pattern of canine growth hormone. The aim of this paper was to define the secretory pattern of growth hormone GH under basal conditions in fasted, conscious, male dogs accustomed to handling.
Blood samples were withdrawn from a cephalic vein at min intervals. In this way, any ultradian rhythms, if present, could be detected within the frequency range of 0. In addition, samples were drawn at either 1- or 2. GH was measured by radioimmunoassay and the raw data were submitted to time series analysis employing power spectral estimation by means of fast Fourier transformation techniques. Spectral analysis revealed an endogenous frequency of 0. The results indicate that under basal conditions the secretory bursts of canine GH are limited to one peak every 4.
Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing. A subset of the p24 proteins p24alpha 3, -beta 1, -gamma 3 and -delta 2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin POMC.
Transgene expression of p24alpha 3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta 2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.
Secretory carcinoma, originally described as mammary analog secretory carcinoma MASC , is a low-grade salivary gland tumor characterized by a t 12;15 p13;q25 translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion.
Most MASCs are localized to the parotid gland and intraoral minor salivary glands Lipomatous secretory meningioma: case report and review of the literature. Secretory meningioma is a rare entity which may be characterised by imaging features unusual for other subtypes of meningoma, such as low attenuation on CT, high fat-tissue equivalent signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, marked surrounding oedema, and irregular contrast enhancement. We report a case of secretory meningioma and review the literature. Shedding light on the role of lipid flippases in the secretory pathway.
We are now aiming at determining the mechanism by which these ATPases function in vesicle biogenesis. For this purpose, we are using novel The limitations and future perspectives of these techniques for the characterization of lipid translocases will be discussed in the light of our recent results Eustachian tube three-dimensional reconstruction of secretory otitis media. Objective: To study relationship between Eustachian tube and secretory otitis media and to explore the pathogeny of secretory otitis by three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube.
Methods: Thirty cases of secretory otitis media male 19, female 11 were selected randomly. Everyone was checked by otoscope and audiometry. Their bilateral Eustachian tubes were scanning by helix CT while making Valsalva's action. All images were passed on to work station to make three-dimensional reconstruction.
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Results: Four patients were found have Eustachian tube diseases, while most of patients' Eustachian tubes ventilated normally. Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of Eustachian tube can open out some pathogens of some secretory otitis medias. It will be helpful to diagnosis and therapy of secretory otitis media. Effects of Cichorium Intybus L. Gastroprotective effect of Cichorium intybus L. Shay's model of experimental ulcer in rats. The effect is attributed to the antisecretory activity of the plant and stimulation of defense barrier function of the gastric mucosa.
The regulatory effect of the phytocomplex on seasonal characteristics of the gastric secretory and defense functions in dogs with Basov's fistula is detected. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses of anterior pituitary gland expose spatial relationships between endocrine cell secretory granule localization and capillary distribution.
Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood.
Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules.
Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast. Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids.
This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic Cysteine Cathepsins in the secretory vesicle produce active peptides: Cathepsin L generates peptide neurotransmitters and cathepsin B produces beta-amyloid of Alzheimer's disease. Recent new findings indicate significant biological roles of cysteine cathepsin proteases in secretory vesicles for production of biologically active peptides.
Notably, cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a key protease for proteolytic processing of proneuropeptides and prohormones into active neuropeptides that are released to mediate cell-cell communication in the nervous system for neurotransmission. These secretory vesicle functions of cathepsins L and B for production of biologically active peptides contrast with the well-known role of cathepsin proteases in lysosomes for the degradation of proteins to result in their inactivation.
The unique secretory vesicle proteome indicates proteins of distinct functional categories that provide the intravesicular environment for support of cysteine cathepsin functions. Features of the secretory vesicle protein systems insure optimized intravesicular conditions that support the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. These new findings of recently discovered biological roles of cathepsins L and B indicate their significance in human health and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells.
Baconnais, S. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis CF glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines MM and KM4, respectively , the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections.
Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF. The plant secretory pathway seen through the lens of the cell wall. Secretion in plant cells is often studied by looking at well-characterised, evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins associated with particular endomembrane compartments.
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Studies using live cell microscopy and fluorescent proteins have illuminated the highly dynamic nature of trafficking, and electron microscopy studies have resolved the ultrastructure of many compartments. Biochemical and molecular analyses have further informed about the function of particular proteins and endomembrane compartments.
In plants, there are over 40 cell types, each with highly specialised functions , and hence potential variations in cell biological processes and cell wall structure. As the primary function of secretion in plant cells is for the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and apoplastic transport complexes, it follows that utilising our knowledge of cell wall glycosyltransferases GTs and their polysaccharide products will inform us about secretion.
Indeed, this knowledge has led to novel insights into the secretory pathway, including previously unseen post-TGN secretory compartments. In this review, we look at what is known about cell wall biosynthesis and the secretory pathway and how the different approaches can be used in a complementary manner to study secretion and provide novel insights into these processes. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural Eberhard W.
We have studied secretory phospholipase A 2 -IIA sPLA 2 activity toward different phospholipid analogues by performing biophysical 1 characterizations and molecular dynamics simulations.
tapetum secretory functions: Topics by ikysisilec.gq
The phospholipids were natural substrates, triple alkyl phospholipids, a prodrug anticancer etherlipid, and Influence of continuous light and darkness on the secretory Srivastava Melatonin and Brain Res. Roles of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor amniotic membrane in oral wound healing. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor is a protein found in secretions such as whole saliva, seminal fluid, cervical mucus, synovial fluid, breast milk, tears, and cerebral spinal fluid, as in secretions from the nose and bronchi, amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane etc.
These findings demonstrate that SLPI function as a potent anti protease, anti inflammatory, bactericidal, antifungal, tissue repair, extra cellular synthesis. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and often bacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in the process. The objectives of this article are to investigate the role of SLPI in oral inflammation and how it contributes to tissue repair in oral mucosa.
The oral wound healing responses are impaired in the SLPI sufficient mice and matrix synthesis and collagen deposition are delayed. This study indicated that SLPI is a povital factor necessary for optimal wound healing. P-selectin targeting to secretory lysosomes of Rbl-2H3 cells. The biogenesis of secretory lysosomes, which combine characteristics of both lysosomes and secretory granules, is currently of high interest. In particular, it is not clear whether delivery of membrane proteins to the secretory lysosome requires lysosomal, secretory granule, or some novel targeting determinants.
Heterologous expression of P-selectin has established that this membrane protein contains targeting signals for both secretory granules and lysosomes. P-selectin is therefore an ideal Human eosinophils express, relative to other circulating leukocytes, large amounts of secretory kD phospholipase A2. Blom, M. Several forms of PLA2 have been identified in mammalian cells. In the present study, the kD, secretory form of PLA2. Progressive quality control of secretory proteins in the early secretory compartment by ERp ERp44 is a pH-regulated chaperone of the secretory pathway.
In the acidic milieu of the Golgi, its C-terminal tail changes conformation, simultaneously exposing the substrate-binding site for cargo capture and the RDEL motif for ER retrieval through interactions with cognate receptors. Protonation of cysteine 29 in the active site allows tail movements in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that conserved histidine residues in the C-terminal tail also regulate ERp44 in vivo. Mutants lacking these histidine residues retain substrates more efficiently.
Surprisingly, they are also O-glycosylated and partially secreted. Co-expression of client proteins prevents secretion of the histidine mutants, forcing tail opening and RDEL accessibility. Client-induced RDEL exposure allows retrieval of proteins from distinct stations along the secretory pathway, as indicated by the changes in O-glycosylation patterns upon overexpression of different partners.
The ensuing gradients might help to optimize folding and assembly of different cargoes. Endogenous ERp44 is O-glycosylated and secreted by human primary endometrial cells, suggesting possible pathophysiological roles of these processes. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants. A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances.
Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots.
The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Roscoe kunyit putih , Zingiber zerumbet L. Smith lempuyang , Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum lengkuas merah , and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had Lipids oil droplets were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Gajah jahe gajah , Zingiber officinale Roxb. Rubrum jahe merah , Keampferia angustifolia L.
Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules. This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid.
In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na presumably NaCl and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions , all of which are considered here.
The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney. Quantitative parameters of seminiferous epithelium in secretory and excretory oligoazoospermia. Biopsy specimens were also compared for the appearance of seminiferous tubule wall, blood vessels, and interstitium. A low productivity of spermatogenesis in cases of hypospermatogenesis appeared to be due to an exaggerated degeneration of primary spermatocytes and to a yield of abnormal spermatids.
A block of meiosis in spermatocyte arrest was associated with a degeneration of primary spermatocytes and with a reduced number of staminal spermatogonia. Abnormal spermiogenesis was observed in cases of obstruction of the genital tract and was associated with an increase in stem cell spermatogonia.
A thickening of seminiferous tubule and blood vessel walls could be responsible for the limited functional capacity of Sertoli cells, causing altered spermiogenesis in cases of excretory azoospermia. A severe primitive failure of Sertoli cells in secretory oligoazoospermia could account for a deranged maturation and degeneration of premeiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. Secretory proteins in the reproductive tract of the snapping turtle, Chelhydra serpentina.
SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate the secretory proteins produced by the epithelial and endometrial glands of the uterine tube and uterus in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina. The proteins were analyzed throughout the phases of the reproductive cycle from May to August, including preovulatory, ovulatory, postovulatory or luteal, and vitellogenic phases. The pattern of secretory proteins is quite uniform along the length of the uterine tube, and the same is true of the uterus, but the patterns for uterine tube and uterus are clearly different.
We identify 13 major proteins in C. Bands co-migrating with 11 of these are found in the uterine tube, but at most 4 are found in the uterus, suggesting that the majority of the albumen proteins are most likely secreted in the uterine tube, not in the uterus. Although some of the egg albumen proteins are present in the uterine tube only at the time of ovulation, most of the bands corresponding to albumen proteins are present throughout the breeding season even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species.
These results suggest that the glandular secretory phase in the uterine tube is active and quite homogeneous in function regardless of location or phase of the reproductive cycle. The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole rBCV derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown.
Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion.
Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis.
Fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles leads to uncontrolled exocytosis in the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV. Most studies focus on the role of TRPML1 in constitutive membrane trafficking to and from the lysosomes. However, this cannot explain impaired neuromuscular and secretory cells' functions that mediate regulated exocytosis. Here, we analyzed several forms of regulated exocytosis in a mouse model of MLIV and, opposite to expectations, we found enhanced exocytosis in secretory glands due to enlargement of secretory granules in part due to fusion with lysosomes.
Preliminary exploration of synaptic vesicle size, spontaneous mEPSCs, and glutamate secretion in neurons provided further evidence for enhanced exocytosis that was rescued by re-expression of TRPML1 in neurons. These features were not observed in Niemann-Pick type C1. These findings suggest that TRPML1 may guard against pathological fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles and suggest a new approach toward developing treatment for MLIV. Postnatal development of bile secretory physiology in the dog.
To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by 14 C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption 14 C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow was virtually absent in day-old puppies, and averaged 0.
In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to 3 H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow.
These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life. Remodeling of bovine oviductal epithelium by mitosis of secretory cells. Two types of oviductal epithelial cells, secretory and ciliated, play crucial roles in the first days after fertilization in mammals. Secretory cells produce various molecules promoting embryo development, while ciliated cells facilitate transport of oocytes and zygotes by ciliary beating.
The proportions of the two cell types change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of ciliated cells on the oviductal luminal surface is abundant at the follicular phase, whereas the proportion of secretory cells gradually increases with the formation of the corpus luteum. In the present study, we hypothesize that the proportions of ciliated and secretory epithelial cells are regulated by mitosis.
The proportion of the cells being positive for FOXJ1 a ciliated cell marker or Ki67 a mitosis marker in epithelial cells during the estrous cycle were immunohistochemically examined. The proportion of Kipositive cells was highest at around the time of ovulation in both the ampulla and isthmus. Candida albicans hyphae grow in a highly polarized fashion from their tips. This polarized growth requires the continuous delivery of secretory vesicles to the tip region.
GTP bound Sec4p is required for the transit of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi to sites of polarized growth. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Sec2p at residue S was necessary for Sec2p to support hyphal, but not yeast growth. Transport of SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles to the tip localizes SEC2 translation to tip allowing a sufficient accumulation of this key protein at the site of polarized growth. Functional morphology of the secretory pathway organelles in yeast. Functional genomics analysis of the secretory pathway in Aspergillus niger.
Filamentous fungi can be found in the majority of habitats of our planet. The wide-spread presence of filamentous fungi is related to their versatile metabolism, which allows them to grow on simple substrates, such as nitrate, acetate, ethanol, ammonia, or on complex matter such as biopolymers from. Exocyst complexes multiple functions in plant cells secretory pathways. Tattooing to "Toughen up": Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A.
A costly signaling model suggests tattooing inoculates the immune system to heightened vigilance against stressors associated with soft tissue damage. We sought to investigate this "inoculation hypothesis" of tattooing as a costly honest signal of fitness. We hypothesized that the immune system habituates to the tattooing stressor in repeatedly tattooed individuals and that immune response to the stress of the tattooing process would correlate with lifetime tattoo experience.
Participants were 24 women and 5 men aged We measured tattoo experience as a sum of number of tattoos, lifetime hours tattooed, years since first tattoo, percent of body covered, and number of tattoo sessions. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test for a main effect of tattoo experience on post-tattoo SIgA, controlling for pretest SIgA, tattoo session duration, body mass, and the interaction between tattoo experience and test session duration. Our data suggest that the body habituates over time to the tattooing stressor. It is possible that individuals with healthy immune systems heal faster, making them more likely to get multiple tattoos.
The transcriptional corepressor MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation. Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation. Holmes, Michael V. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.
However, it is not. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour. Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. We report Full Text Available Secretory factors in animals play an important role in communication between different cells, tissues and organs. Especially, the secretory factors with specific expression in one tissue may reflect important functions and unique status of that tissue in an organism. In this study, we identified potential tissue-specific secretory factors in the fat, muscle, heart, lung, kidney and liver in the mouse by analyzing microarray data from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus GEO public repository and searching and predicting their subcellular location in GeneCards and WoLF PSORT, and then confirmed tissue-specific expression of the genes using semi-quantitative PCR reactions.
With this approach, we confirmed 11 lung, 7 liver, 2 heart, 1 heart and muscle, 7 kidney and 2 adipose and liver-specific secretory factors. These genes were tagged with hemagglutinin at the 3'end and then transiently transfected to HEK cells. Through protein detection in cell lysate and media using Western blotting, we verified secretion of the 5 genes and predicted the potential pathways in which they may participate in the specific tissue through data analysis of GEO profiles.
Identification of novel secretory factors through the current study provides a new platform to explore novel secretory factors and a general direction for further study of these genes in the future. Full Text Available Prevention of infections by vaccination remains a compelling goal to improve public health. Mucosal vaccines would make immunization procedures easier, be better suited for mass administration, and most efficiently induce immune exclusion -- a term coined for non-inflammatory antibody shielding of internal body surfaces, mediated principally by secretory immunoglobulin A SIgA.
The exported antibodies are polymeric, mainly IgA dimers pIgA, produced by local plasma cells stimulated by antigens that target the mucosae. SIgA was early shown to be complexed with an epithelial glycoprotein -- the secretory component SC. From the basolateral surface, pIg-pIgR complexes are taken up by endocytosis and then extruded into the lumen after apical cleavage of the receptor -- bound SC having stabilizing and innate functions in the secretory antibodies.
These knockout mice show a variety of defects in their mucosal defensce and changes in their intestinal microbiota. The airways also receive such cells from nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue NALT but by different homing receptors. This compartmentalization is a challenge for mucosal vaccination, as are the mechanisms used by the mucosal immune system to discriminate between commensal symbionts mutualism, pathobionts and overt pathogens elimination. Gibberellin control of stamen development: a fertile field.
Stamen development is governed by a conserved genetic pathway, within which the role of hormones has been the subject of considerable recent research. Our understanding of the involvement of gibberellin GA signalling in this developmental process is further advanced than for the other phytohormones, and here we review recent experimental results in rice Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana that have provided insight into the timing and mechanisms of GA regulation of stamen development, identifying the tapetum and developing pollen as major targets.
GA signalling governs both tapetum secretory functions and entry into programmed cell death via the GAMYB class of transcription factor, the targets of which integrate with the established genetic framework for the regulation of tapetum function at multiple hierarchical levels. Secretory granule formation and membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria in relation to flight and rest. The influence of flight activity on the formation of secretory granules and the concomitant membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in the peptidergic neurosecretory adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria was investigated by means of ultrastructural morphometric methods.
The patterns of labelling of the trans-Golgi network by the exogenous adsorptive endocytotic tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase and by the endogenous marker enzyme acid phosphatase were used as parameters and were measured by an automatic image analysis system. The results show that endocytosed fragments of plasma membrane with bound peroxidase label were transported to the trans-Golgi network and used to build new secretory granules.
The amounts of peroxidase and especially of acid phosphatase within the trans-Golgi network showed a strong tendency to be smaller in flight-stimulated cells than in non-stimulated cells. The amounts of acid phosphatase in the immature secretory granules originating from the trans-Golgi network were significantly smaller in stimulated cells. The number of immature secretory granules positive for acid phosphatase tended to be higher in stimulated cells.
Thus, flight stimulation of adipokinetic cells for 1 h influences the functioning of the trans-Golgi network; this most probably results in a slight enhancement of the production of secretory granules by the trans-Golgi network. Munc13s execute their priming function through their MUN domain. Instead, the pleckstrin homology domain of CAPS2 seemingly is essential for its priming function. Our findings indicate a priming mode for secretory vesicles. Identification and characterization of secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence.
Cellular senescence was first described by Hayflick and Moorhead in who observed that cultures of normal human fibroblasts had a limited replicative potential and eventually became irreversibly arrest. Recently a large number of molecular phenotypes such as changes in gene expression, protein processing and chromatin organization have been also described. In contrast to apoptosis, senescence does not destroy the cells but leaves them metabolically and synthetically active and therefore able to affect their microenvironment. In particular, senescent fibroblasts and some cancer cells were found to secrete proteins with known or putative tumor-promoting functions such as growth factors or proteolytic enzymes.
However, the knowledge about secreted proteins from senescent tumor cells and their functions to surrounding cells is still lacking. In this study, changes of senescence associated secretory protein expression profile were observed in MCF7 human breast cancer cells exposed to gamma-ray radiation using two dimensional electrophoresis. Also, we identified up-regulated secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced cellular senescence.
Here, we show that senescent human breast cancer MCF7 cells promote the proliferation, invasion and migration of neighboring cells. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia Fabaceae. A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures.
The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels.
The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules Compared with control mice, a similar amount of total renin granule volume per afferent arteriole is contained in a smaller part of beige mouse afferent arteriole.
Granular cells from beige mice could therefore be a valuable Secretory processes involved in the formation of milk. Current knowledge on milk formation is reviewed. Emphasis is given to sites of formation of protein, fat and lactose, and transfer of these compounds into the alveolar lumen. Further, the formation of the water phase of milk is thoroughly discussed, and evidence presented that milk formation includes both secretory and re-absorptive processes as well as diffusion.
A short presentation of colostrum formation is included. Neither biochemical processes involved in synthesis of organic compounds nor mammary gland endocrinology are discussed. Sialotranscriptomics of Rhipicephalus zambeziensis reveals intricate expression profiles of secretory proteins and suggests tight temporal transcriptional regulation during blood-feeding. The assembled sialotranscriptome greatly expands the sequence availability of R. Full Text Available This study presents the treatment of 68 children with secretory otitis media.
Children underwent adenoid vegetations, nasal speech, conductive hearing loss, ventilation disturbance in Eustachian tube. In all children adenoidectomy was indicated. The surgical treatment included insertion of ventilation tubes and adenoidectomy where there where hypertrophic adenoids. Clinical material was analyzed according to hearing threshold, hearing level, middle ear condition estimated by pure tone audiometry and tympanometry before and after treatment.
Data concerning both groups were compared. The results indicated that adenoidectomy combined with the ventilation tubes facilitates secretory otitis media heeling as well as decrease of hearing impairments. That enables prompt restoration of the hearing function as an important precondition for development of the language, social, emotional and academic development of children.
The corpuscles of Stannius of threespined sticklebacks contain two glandular cell types of presumed endocrine nature. To elucidate the function of both cell types the secretory activity of the cells was studied in fully adapted seawater and freshwater fishes and in specimens transferred from sea.
Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells. Barrett assembles here a distinguished group of authors who address evolutionary transitions using comparative and phylogenetic approaches, the tools of genomics, population genetics, and theoretical modeling, and through studies in development and field experiments in ecology.
With special focus on evolutionary transitions and shifts in reproductive characters--key elements of biological diversification and research in evolutionary biology--"Major Evolutionary Transitions in Flowering Plant Reproduction "is the most up-to-date treatment of a fast-moving area of evolutionary biology and ecology. The uses and mass cultivation of this algae have risen substantially due to an increased understanding of its biological systems.
This text contains detailed descriptions of both the biology and the biotechnological uses of Spirulena Platensis. Part One focuses on the physiology, morphology, photosyntheses and genetics of laboratory cultures. Part Two discusses the practical uses in biotechnology industries, such as: the cultivation on flat-plate reactors; mass cultures outdoors; uses in wastewater treatment and the use of biomass. It offers critiques of the problems encountered and discussions of the future commercial prospects for large-scale production.
Puite, J. Dons, H. Huizing, A. Kool, M. This 7th International Protoplast Symposium was organized by K. Puite Secretary , J. Dons Treasurer , H. Huizing and E. Scientific Advisers of the Symposium were A. Koornneef and F. The Organizing Committee decided that the scientific programme of the Symposium should be mainly focussed on protoplast technology of relevance to plant breeding.
Therefore research on microbial protoplasts and on secondary metabolites was not included. About scientists from 27 different countries were welcomed at the meeting. Speakers at Symposium Sessions and authors of Poster contributions were asked to hand over their manuscripts for the Symposium Proceedings already at the meeting, permit ting early publication of the Proceedings.
These manuscripts give the state of the art of the protoplast research and illustrate the progress since the last Protoplast Symposium. Geological and molecular data were used, helping us to show with more details each of the phases presented.neuromarlo.tk
Download The Tapetum Cytology Function Biochemistry And Evolution 1993
Also, specialization of the reproductive systems such as evolution of unissexuality dioecy and monoecy , evolution of self-incompatibility, selfing fertilization and mixed mating systems were considered. The last part discusses the biology and genetics of the reproductive systems and shows the strategies that modern plants use in asexual reproduction vegetative and apomictic reproduction and sexual reproduction. In addition, the sexual reproduction topics such as gametogenesis, the genetic control of reproductive organs, systems that promote outcrossing, selfing and mixed mating systems were also included.
Clement, Sharron S. The common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Key topics covered include the numerous genetic and genomic resources, available tools, the identified genes and quantitative trait locus QTL identified, and there is a particular emphasis on domestication. It is a valuable resource for students and researchers interested in the genetics and genomics of the common bean and legumes in general. Triticale Hardcover, 1st ed.
However, no recent book captures the new knowledge and progresses made in more than 2 decades. The purpose of this work is to review and collate the new knowledge of triticale plant biology and agronomy, while considering the contribution of biotechnology enablers such as molecular markers, doubled haploid technology and genetic engineering in breeding for traits important for crop production, feed, food and industrial end-uses.
Mohan Jain, Pramod P. Gupta, R. In recent years, ever rising human population growth has put a tremendous pressure on trees and tree products; growing awareness of the potential of previously unexploited tree resources; and environmental pollution have both accelerated the development of new technologies for tree propagation, breeding and improvement. Biotechnology of trees may be the answer to solve the problems which can not be solved by conventional breeding methods.
The combination of biotechnology and conventional methods such as plant propagation and breeding could become a novel approach to improving and multiplying a large number of the trees and woody plants. So far, plant tissue culture technology has largely been exploited by commercial companies in propagation of ornamentals, especially foliage house plants. Generally, tissue culture of woody plants has been recalcitrant. However, limited success has been achieved in tissue culture of angiosperm and gymnosperm woody plants. A number of recent reports on somatic embryogenesis in woody plants such as Norway spruce Picea abies , Loblolly pine Pinus taeda , Sandalwood Santalum album , Citrus and mango Mangifera indica , offer a ray of hope for inexpensive clonal propagation for large-scale production of plants or 'emblings' or somatic seedlings; protoplast work; cryopreservation; genetic transformation; and synthetic or artificial or manufactured seed production.
TFs are pivotal in the regulation of plant development, reproduction, intercellular signaling, response to environment, cell cycle, and metabolism. Plant Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols offers a comprehensive approach by covering the basic concepts as well as the detailed protocols of a series of commonly used tools for investigating plant TFs. From discussing select TF families in plants to presenting approaches for identifying them, methods are covered to verify the function, to identify protein interactions in which TFs are involved, and how the interactions are mediated.
Increasing examples of TFs that function non-cell-autonomously are being discovered and methods to assess intercellular trafficking are also addressed. A section is devoted to examining interaction with DNA, and the volume concludes with a discussion of directed evolution to generate transcription factors that can more efficiently control desired processes. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology TM series format, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Authoritative and accessible, Plant Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide to seasoned plant molecular biologists as well as scientists new to the field of TFs and provides many necessary methods to all scientists who are interested in exploring the functions of transcription factors. Algae for Biofuels and Energy Paperback, ed. Michael A. This book covers the key steps in the production of renewable biofuels from microalgae - strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilisation, lipid metabolism and quality, hydrogen production, genetic engineering, biomass harvesting, extraction.
Greenhouse gas and techno-economic modelling are reviewed as is the year history of microalgae as sources of biofuels and of commercial-scale microalgae culture. A summary of relevant basic standard methods used in the study of microalgae culture is provided. The book is intended for the expert and those starting work in the field. The Peanut Genome Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. Further, it demonstrates how advances in plant genomics can be used to improve crop breeding. The peanut or groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Millsp is a globally important grain legume and oilseed crop, cultivated in over countries and consumed in the form of roasted seeds, oil and confectionary in nearly every country on Earth.
The peanut contributes towards achieving food and nutritional security, in addition to financial security through income generation; as such, it is also vital to the livelihood of the poor in the developing world. There have been significant advances in peanut research, especially in the last five years, including sequencing the genome of both diploid progenitors, and the availability of tremendous transcriptome resources, large-scale genomic variations that can be used as genetic markers, genetic populations bi- and multiparent populations and germplasm sets , marker-trait associations and molecular breeding products.
The immediate availability of the genome sequence for tetraploid cultivated peanuts is the most essential genomic resource for achieving a deeper understanding of peanut traits and their use in breeding programs. The Chickpea Genome Hardcover, 1st ed. It also offers an overview of the latest advances in genome sequencing and analysis. The growing human population, rapid climate changes and limited amounts of arable land are creating substantial challenges in connection with the availability and affordability of nutritious food for smallholder farmers in developing countries.
In this context, climate smart crops are essential to alleviating the hunger of the millions of poor and undernourished people living in developing countries. In addition to cereals, grain legumes are an integral part of the human diet and provide sustainable income for smallholder farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Among grain legumes, the chickpea Cicer arietinum is the second most important in terms of production and productivity.
Besides being a rich source of proteins, it can fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with rhizobia and increase the input of combined nitrogen. Several abiotic stresses like drought, heat, salinity, together with biotic stresses like Fusarium wilt, Ascochyta blight, and Botrytis grey mould have led to production losses, as the chickpeas is typically grown in the harsh climates of our planet's semi-arid regions.
The book is divided into 4 sections. The first one is focused on essential oil composition and why plants produce these compounds that have been used by humans since ancient times. Part 2 presents an update on the use of essential oils in various areas, including food and pharma industries as well as agriculture. In part 3 readers will find new trends in bioanalytical methods.
Lastly, part 4 presents a number of approaches to increase essential oil production, such as in vitro and hairy root culture, metabolic engineering and biotechnology. Altogether, this volume offers a comprehensive look at what researchers have been doing over the last years to better understand these compounds and how to explore them for the benefit of the society. Welcome to Loot. Checkout Your Cart Price. Abbott 7 K.